Articles published in other publications

 

If you are a student and need one of the articles below, please write to info@globalgarbage.org 

Se você é estudante e precisa de algum artigo abaixo, escreva para info@globalgarbage.org

 

Articles in Press

Monitoring plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea
Jan A. van Franeker, Christine Blaize, Johannis Danielsen, Keith Fairclough, Jane Gollan, Nils Guse, Poul-Lindhard Hansen, Martin Heubeck, Jens-Kjeld Jensen, Gilles Le Guillou, Bergur Olsen, Kåre-Olav Olsen, John Pedersen, Eric W.M. Stienen and Daniel M. Turner
Environmental Pollution
In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 6 July 2011
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.06.008

The economic cost and control of marine debris damage in the Asia-Pacific region
Alistair McIlgorm, Harry F. Campbell and Michael J. Rule
Ocean & Coastal Management
In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 30 May 2011
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.05.007

 

2011

Removing derelict fishing gear from the deep seabed of the East Sea
Dong-Oh Cho
Marine Policy
Volume 35, Issue 5, September 2011, Pages 610-614
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2011.01.022

Situational influences on normative evaluations of coastal tourism and recreation management strategies in Hawai’i
Mark D. Needham and Brian W. Szuster
Tourism Management
Volume 32, Issue 4, August 2011, Pages 732-740
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2010.06.005

Fishery failure, unemployed commercial fishers, and lost blue crab pots: An unexpected success story
Kirk Havens, Donna Marie Bilkovic, David Stanhope and Kory Angstadt
Environmental Science & Policy
Volume 14, Issue 4, June 2011, Pages 445-450
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2011.01.002

Degradable Polyethylene: Fantasy or Reality
Prasun K. Roy, Minna Hakkarainen, Indra K. Varma, Ann-Christine Albertsson
Environmental Science & Technology 2011 45 (10), 4217-4227
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es104042f

Spatio-temporal distribution of floating objects in the German Bight (North Sea)
Martin Thiel, Iván A. Hinojosa, Tanja Joschko and Lars Gutow
Journal of Sea Research
Volume 65, Issue 3, April 2011, Pages 368-379
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2011.03.002

Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches
Juliana Assunção Ivar do Sul, Isaac R. Santos, Ana Cláudia Friedrich, Alexandre Matthiensen and Gilberto Fillmann
Estuaries and Coasts
Volume 34, Number 4, 814-823
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12237-011-9392-8

Research in plastic marine debris in mainland Portugal
Investigação sobre detritos marinhos plásticos em Portugal continental
J. P. G. L. Frias, J. Martins, P. Sobral
Revista da Gestão Costeira Integrada 11(1):145-148 (2011)
Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management 11(1):145-148 (2011)
http://www.aprh.pt/rgci/revista11f1.html
Open access article – Full Text PDF

Temporal trend of litter contamination at Cassino beach, Southern Brazil
Tendências temporais de contaminação por lixo na Praia de Cassino, Sul do Brasil
Paula S. Tourinho and Gilberto Fillmann
Revista da Gestão Costeira Integrada 11(1):97-102 (2011)
Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management 11(1):97-102 (2011)
http://www.aprh.pt/rgci/revista11f1.html
Open access article – Full Text PDF

Quantity and type of plastic debris flowing from two urban rivers to coastal waters and beaches of Southern California
Quantidades e tipos de plásticos provenientes de dois rios urbanos que escoam para águas costeiras e praias do Sul da Califórnia (Estados Unidos)
C.J. Moore, G.L. Lattin, A.F. Zellers
Revista da Gestão Costeira Integrada 11(1):65-73 (2011)
Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management 11(1):65-73 (2011)
http://www.aprh.pt/rgci/revista11f1.html
Open access article – Full Text PDF

Marine debris on Rio Grande do Sul north coast, Brazil: spatial and temporal patterns
Lixo marinho no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: padrões espaciais e temporais

Luana Portz, Rogério P. Manzolli, Juliana A. Ivar do Sul
Revista da Gestão Costeira Integrada 11(1):41-48 (2011)
Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management 11(1):41-48 (2011)
http://www.aprh.pt/rgci/revista11f1.html
Open access article – Full Text PDF

Trends in Marine Debris in the U.S. Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico 1996-2003
Tendências do Lixo Marinho no Caribe Norte-Americano e no Golfo do México 1996-2003
Christine A. Ribic, Seba B. Sheavly & David J. Rugg
Revista da Gestão Costeira Integrada 11(1):7-19 (2011)
Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management 11(1):7-19 (2011)
http://www.aprh.pt/rgci/revista11f1.html
Open access article – Full Text PDF

Temporal and spatial distribution of floating objects in coastal waters of central–southern Chile and Patagonian fjords
Iván A. Hinojosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira and Martin Thiel
Continental Shelf Research
Volume 31, Issues 3-4, 1 March 2011, Pages 172-186
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2010.04.013 

Distribution and Degradation of Fresh Water Plastic Particles Along the Beaches of Lake Huron, Canada
Maciej Zbyszewski and Patricia L. Corcoran
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
Volume 220, Numbers 1-4, 365-372
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-011-0760-6

Plastic Particles in Coastal Pelagic Ecosystems of the Northeast Pacific Ocean
Miriam J. Doyle, William Watson, Noelle M. Bowlin and Seba B. Sheavly
Marine Environmental Research
Volume 71, Issue 1, February 2011, Pages 41-52
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2010.10.001

A Thermodynamic Approach for Assessing the Environmental Exposure of Chemicals Absorbed to Microplastic
Todd Gouin, Nicola Roche, Rainer Lohmann, Geoff Hodges
Environmental Science & Technology 2011 45 (4), 1466-1472
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es1032025 

 

2010

Quantitation of persistent organic pollutants adsorbed on plastic debris from the Northern Pacific Gyre’s “eastern garbage patch”
Lorena M. Rios, Patrick R. Jones, Charles Moore and Urja V. Narayan
J. Environ. Monit., 2010, 12, 2226-2236
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C0EM00239A

Marine Debris in the Island of Santa Catarina, South Brazil: Spatial Patterns, Composition, and Biological Aspects
Walter Martin Widmer and Mariana Coutinho Hennemann
Journal of Coastal Research
Nov 2010, Volume 26, Issue 6, pg(s) 993-1000
http://dx.doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-09-00072.1

Plastic Accumulation in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre
Kara Lavender Law, Skye Morét-Ferguson, Nikolai A. Maximenko, Giora Proskurowski, Emily E. Peacock, Jan Hafner, Christopher M. Reddy
Science 19 August 2010
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1192321

Chronic toxicity test with sea urchin Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea), exposed to light-stick - flag paternoster used for longline surface fishing
Caio Cesar-Ribeiro; Maria Fernanda Palanch-Hans
Braz. j. oceanogr. vol.58 no.spe3 São Paulo June 2010
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-87592010000700009
Open access article – Full Text PDF

Macroplastics at sea around Antarctica
David K.A. Barnes, Adam Walters and Leandra Gonçalves
Marine Environmental Research
Volume 70, Issue 2, August 2010, Pages 250-252
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2010.05.006

The Dirt on Ocean Garbage Patches
Jocelyn Kaiser
Science 18 June 2010:
Vol. 328. no. 5985, p. 1506
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.328.5985.1506
Open access article – Full Text PDF

Spatial Patterns of Plastic Debris along Estuarine Shorelines
Mark A. Browne, Tamara S. Galloway, Richard C. Thompson
Environmental Science & Technology 2010 44 (9), 3404-3409
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es903784e

Impacts of pollution on marine life in Southeast Asia
Peter A. Todd, Xueyuan Ong and Loke Ming Chou
Biodiversity and Conservation
Volume 19, Number 4 / April, 2010
1063-1082
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-010-9778-0

Ingestion of fishing gear and entanglements of seabirds: Monitoring and implications for management
Richard A. Phillips, Cindy Ridley, Keith Reid, Philip J.A. Pugh, Geoffrey N. Tuck and Nancy Harrison
Biological Conservation
Volume 143, Issue 2, February 2010, Pages 501-512
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.11.020

A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2010
William J. Sutherland, Mick Clout, Isabelle M. Côté, Peter Daszak, Michael H. Depledge, Liz Fellman, Erica Fleishman, Rachel Garthwaite, David W. Gibbons, Jennifer De Lurio, Andrew J. Impey, Fiona Lickorish, David Lindenmayer, Jane Madgwick, Ceri Margerison, Trevor Maynard, Lloyd S. Peck, Jules Pretty, Stephanie Prior, Kent H. Redford, Jörn P.W. Scharlemann, Mark Spalding and Andrew R. Watkinson
Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Volume 25, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 1-7
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2009.10.003

 

2009

Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments
David K. A. Barnes, Francois Galgani, Richard C. Thompson and Morton Barlaz
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 27 July 2009 vol. 364 no. 1526 1985-1998
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0205
Open access article – Full Text PDF

Bringing Home the Trash: Do Colony-Based Differences in Foraging Distribution Lead to Increased Plastic Ingestion in Laysan Albatrosses?
Lindsay C. Young, Cynthia Vanderlip, David C. Duffy, Vsevolod Afanasyev, Scott A. Shaffer
PLoS ONE 4(10): e7623
Received: August 24, 2009; Accepted: October 8, 2009; Published: October 28, 2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007623
Open access article – Full Text PDF

Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings—entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions
Murray R. Gregory
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 27 July 2009 vol. 364 no. 1526 2013-2025
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0265
Open access article – Full Text PDF

Marine litter in coral reef areas along the Jordan Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea
Ahmad Abu-Hilal and Tariq Al-Najjar
Journal of Environmental Management
Volume 90, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 1043-1049
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.03.014

Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment
Peter G. Ryan, Charles J. Moore, Jan A. van Franeker and Coleen L. Moloney
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 27 July 2009 vol. 364 no. 1526 1999-2012
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0207
Open access article – Full Text PDF 

Occurrence of Plastic Micro-Debris in the Southern California Current System
Lisa R. Gilfillan,Mark D. Ohman,Miriam L. Doyle and William Watson
CalCOFI Rep., Vol. 50, 2009
http://calcofi.org/publications/ccreports/251-vol50-2009.html
Open access article – Full Text PDF

Our plastic age
Richard C. Thompson, Shanna H. Swan, Charles J. Moore and Frederick S. vom Saal
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 27 July 2009 vol. 364 no. 1526 1973-1976
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0054
Open access article – Full Text PDF

Plastic litter on an urban beach — a case study in Brazil
Jacqueline Santos Silva-Cavalcanti, Maria Christina Barbosa de Araújo, and Monica Ferreira da Costa
Waste Management & Research
Feb 2009; vol. 27: pp. 93 - 97
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0734242X08088705

Pollution, Solids
C.M.G. Vivian and L.A. Murray
Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (Second Edition)
Pages 519-525
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-012374473-9.00767-0

Seabirds as Indicators of Ocean Pollution
W.A. Montevecchi
Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (Second Edition)
Pages 274-278
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-012374473-9.00236-8

Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife
Emma L. Teuten, Jovita M. Saquing, Detlef R. U. Knappe, Morton A. Barlaz, Susanne Jonsson, Annika Björn, Steven J. Rowland, Richard C. Thompson, Tamara S. Galloway, Rei Yamashita, Daisuke Ochi, Yutaka Watanuki, Charles Moore, Pham Hung Viet, Touch Seang Tana, Maricar Prudente, Ruchaya Boonyatumanond, Mohamad P. Zakaria, Kongsap Akkhavong, Yuko Ogata, Hisashi Hirai, Satoru Iwasa, Kaoruko Mizukawa, Yuki Hagino, Ayako Imamura, Mahua Saha and Hideshige Takada
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 27 July 2009 vol. 364 no. 1526 2027-2045
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0284
Open access article – Full Text PDF 

Use of plastic debris as shelter by an unidentified species of hermit crab from the Maldives
João P. Barreiros and Osmar J. Luiz Jr
Marine Biodiversity Records (2009), 2:e33 Cambridge University Press
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1755267208000377

 

2008

Flag Items as a Tool for Monitoring Solid Wastes from Users on Urban Beaches
Jacqueline S. Silva, Scheyla C. T. Barbosa, Monica F. Costa
Journal of Coastal Research
July 2008, Vol. 24, No. 4 : pp. 890-898
http://www.jcronline.org/doi/abs/10.2112/06-0695.1
http://dx.doi.org/10.2112/06-0695.1

Ingested Microscopic Plastic Translocates to the Circulatory System of the Mussel, Mytilus edulis (L.)
Mark A. Browne, Awantha Dissanayake, Tamara S. Galloway, David M. Lowe and Richard C. Thompson
Environ. Sci. Technol., 2008, 42 (13), pp 5026–5031
Publication Date (Web): May 30, 2008
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es800249a

Marine litter on the Kachelotplate, Lower Saxonian Wadden Sea
Gerd Liebezeit
Marine Biodiversity
Volume 38, Number 2, 147-151
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03055291

Shark interactions in pelagic longline fisheries
Eric Gilman, Shelley Clarke, Nigel Brothers, Joanna Alfaro-Shigueto, John Mandelman, Jeff Mangel, Samantha Petersen, Susanna Piovano, Nicola Thomson, Paul Dalzell, Miguel Donoso, Meidad Goren and Tim Werner
Marine Policy
Volume 32, Issue 1, January 2008, Pages 1-18
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2007.05.001

Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: A rapidly increasing, long-term threat
Charles James Moore
Environmental Research
Volume 108, Issue 2, October 2008, Pages 131-139
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2008.07.025

Testing phenanthrene distribution properties of virgin plastic pellets and plastic eroded pellets found on Lesvos island beaches (Greece)
Hrissi K. Karapanagioti and Irene Klontza
Marine Environmental Research
Volume 65, Issue 4, May 2008, Pages 283-290
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2007.11.005

The plastic world: Sources, amounts, ecological impacts and effects on development, reproduction, brain and behavior in aquatic and terrestrial animals and humans
Frederick S. vom Saal, Guest Editors, Stefano Parmigiani, Paola L. Palanza, Lorne G. Everett and Richard Ragaini
Environmental Research
Volume 108, Issue 2, October 2008, Pages 127-130
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2008.03.008

Why small plastic particles may pose a big problem in the oceans
Kellyn Betts
Environmental Science & Technology 2008 42 (24), 8995-8995
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es802970v
Open access article – Full Text PDF

 

2007

Ghost fishing in European waters: Impacts and management responses
James Brown and Graeme Macfadyen
Marine Policy
Volume 31, Issue 4, July 2007, Pages 488-504
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2006.10.007

Investigating the properties of plastic resin pellets found in the coastal areas of Lesvos island
KARAPANAGIOTI H.K. and KLONTZA I.
Global NEST Journal, Vol 9, No 1, pp 71-76, 2007
http://www.gnest.org/journal/Vol9_No1.asp
Open access article – Full Text PDF

Microplastic - an emerging contaminant of potential concern?
Mark A. Browne, Tamara Galloway, Richard Thompson
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Volume 3, Issue 4, Date: October 2007, Pages: 559-561
Published Online: Nov 5 2009 11:05AM
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ieam.5630030412
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122588273/abstract

Potential for Plastics to Transport Hydrophobic Contaminants
Emma L. Teuten, Steven J. Rowland, Tamara S. Galloway, and Richard C. Thompson
Environ. Sci. Technol., 2007, 41 (22), pp 7759–7764
Publication Date (Web): October 20, 2007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es071737s
Open access article – Full Text PDF

REMOTE SENSING REVEALS LINKS AMONG THE ENDANGERED HAWAIIAN MONK SEAL, MARINE DEBRIS, AND EL NIÑO
MaryJ. Donohue, David G. Foley
MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, 23(2): 468–473 (April 2007)
Published Online: 6 Mar 2007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2007.00114.x

 

2006

Are strandline meiofaunal assemblages affected by a once-only mechanical beach cleaning? Experimental findings
Tom Gheskiere, Vincx Magda, Pison Greet and Degraer Steven
Marine Environmental Research
Volume 61, Issue 3, April 2006, Pages 245-264
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2005.10.003

Development and management of a coastal litter campaign: The voluntary coastal partnership approach
K.L. Storrier and D.J. McGlashan
Marine Policy
Volume 30, Issue 2, March 2006, Pages 189-196
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2005.01.002

Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea
Dae-In Lee, Hyeon-Seo Cho and Sun-Beom Jeong
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science
Volume 70, Issues 1-2, October 2006, Pages 187-194
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2006.06.003

 

2005

Impacts of lost fishing gear on coral reef sessile invertebrates in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary
Mark Chiappone, Helga Dienes, Dione W. Swanson and Steven L. Miller
Biological Conservation
Volume 121, Issue 2, January 2005, Pages 221-230
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2004.04.023

Influence of socio-economic characteristics of beach users on litter generation
Isaac Rodrigues Santos, Ana Cláudia Friedrich, Mônica Wallner-Kersanach and Gilberto Fillmann
Ocean & Coastal Management
Volume 48, Issues 9-10, 2005, Pages 742-752
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2005.08.006

 

2004

Litter pollution on the Jordanian shores of the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea)
Ahmad H. Abu-Hilal and Tariq Al-Najjar
Marine Environmental Research
Volume 58, Issue 1, July 2004, Pages 39-63
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2003.12.003

 

2003

Drifting plastic debris as a potential vector for dispersing Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) species
Mercedes Masó, Esther Garcés, Francesc Pagès, Jordi Camp
Scientia Marina, Vol 67, No 1 (2003)
http://scientiamarina.revistas.csic.es/index.php/scientiamarina/article/view/459
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2003.67n1107
Open access article – Full Text PDF

Origins and Biological Accumulation of Small Plastic Particles in Fur Seals from Macquarie Island
Cecilia Eriksson and Harry Burton
Ambio
Vol. 32, No. 6 (Sep., 2003), pp. 380-384
http://www.jstor.org/pss/4315405

 

2001

Plastic Resin Pellets as a Transport Medium for Toxic Chemicals in the Marine Environment
Yukie Mato, Tomohiko Isobe, Hideshige Takada, Haruyuki Kanehiro, Chiyoko Ohtake and Tsuguchika Kaminuma
Environ. Sci. Technol., 2001, 35 (2), pp 318–324
Publication Date (Web): December 8, 2000
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0010498

 

2000

Subtidal benthic marine litter at Kawau Island, north-eastern New Zealand
M. K. Backhurst and R. G. Cole
Journal of Environmental Management
Volume 60, Issue 3, November 2000, Pages 227-237
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jema.2000.0381

 

1997

The impact of plastic debris on the biota of tidal flats in Ambon Bay (eastern Indonesia)
Prulley Uneputty and S. M. Evans
Marine Environmental Research
Volume 44, Issue 3, October 1997, Pages 233-242
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0141-1136(97)00002-0

 

1995

From castaways to throwaways: marine litter in the Pitcairn Islands
T. G. BENTON
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society
Volume 56 Issue 1-2, Pages 415 - 422
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.1995.tb01101.x

Incidence of plastic in seabirds from the tropical pacific, 1984–1991: Relation with distribution of species, sex, age, season, year and body weight
Larry B. Spear, David G. Ainley and Christine A. Ribic
Marine Environmental Research
Volume 40, Issue 2, 1995, Pages 123-146
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0141-1136(94)00140-K

The Israeli experience of using marine and coastal pollution monitoring as a basis for environmental management
Y. Cohen
Water Science and Technology
Volume 32, Issues 9-10, 1995, Pages 33-39
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0273-1223(96)00074-1

 

1993

Problems of pollution and litter in the seas around the Scottish Isles: the Shetland perspective
M.R. Hall
Marine Policy
Volume 17, Issue 5, September 1993, Pages 418-421
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-597X(93)90058-B 

 

1992

A Fourteen-Year Survey of Plastic Ingestion by Western North Atlantic Seabirds
Mary L. Moser and David S. Lee
Colonial Waterbirds, Vol. 15, No. 1 (1992), pp. 83-94
http://www.jstor.org/stable/1521357

Litter on the israeli coastline
Abraham Golik and Yaron Gertner
Marine Environmental Research
Volume 33, Issue 1, 1992, Pages 1-15
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0141-1136(92)90002-4

Chapter (Book)
Persistent Marine Debris
Petroleum Residues and Plastics in the World’s Oceans

E. M. Levy
The Science of Global Change
Chapter 11, pp 224–239
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bk-1992-0483.ch011

 

1989

Entrapment of sea-deposited plastic on the shore of a Gulf of Maine Island
Richard H. Podolsky
Marine Environmental Research
Volume 27, Issue 1, 1989, Pages 67-72
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0141-1136(89)90019-6

 

1988

Marine litter: Where does the problem lie?
V. Cuomo, V. Pane and P. Contesso
Progress In Oceanography
Volume 21, Issue 2, 1988, Pages 177-180
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0079-6611(88)90036-5

The characteristics and distribution of plastic particles at the sea-surface off the southwestern Cape Province, South Africa
Peter G. Ryan
Marine Environmental Research
Volume 25, Issue 4, 1988, Pages 249-273
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0141-1136(88)90015-3

 

1987

Plastic in the North Atlantic
R. Jude Wilber
Oceanus 30, 61–68
http://www.globalgarbage.org/plastic_in_the_north_atlantic_r._jude_wilber_oceanus_1987.pdf

The incidence and characteristics of plastic particles ingested by seabirds
Peter G. Ryan
Marine Environmental Research
Volume 23, Issue 3, 1987, Pages 175-206
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0141-1136(87)90028-6

 

1983

Virgin plastic granules on some beaches of Eastern Canada and Bermuda
Murray R Gregory
Marine Environmental Research
Volume 10, Issue 2, 1983, Pages 73-92
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0141-1136(83)90011-9

 

1980

Accumulation of plastic litter on beaches of Amchitka Island, Alaska
Theodore R. Merrell Jr.
Marine Environmental Research
Volume 3, Issue 3, July 1980, Pages 171-184
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0141-1136(80)90025-2